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Prototype devices

It is recognized that a manufacturer may wish to submit a small number  of "prototype models" of a device to clinical investigation in order to assess safety and/or performance; and those such prototypes may need to undergo a number of changes prior to large-scale production.

Bioequivalence Guidelines/Regulations



This collection is Bioavailability / (in-vivo-) Bioequivalence, although GCP/GLP, Dissolution/BCS, Pharmacokinetics, Bioanalytics and Statistics are also covered to some minor extent. You should always consult websites of the respective regulatory body for any updated versions.


Although this Collection contains information of a legal nature, it has been developed for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice or opinions as to the current operative laws, regulations, or guidelines of any jurisdiction. In addition, because new standards are issued on a continuing basis, this Collection is not an exhaustive source of all current applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines in the field. While reasonable efforts have been made to assure the accuracy and completeness of the information provided, researchers and other individuals should check with local authorities and/or research ethics committees before starting research activities.


ICH Guidelines

o Development safety update report

o Structure and content of clinical study reports

o Good clinical practice

o General considerations for clinical trials

o Clinical safety data management

o Statistical principles for Clinical trials

o Validation of analytical procedures

o Test procedures and acceptance criteria for new drug subtances and new drug products

All documents are in step 5 (implementation state) unless noted otherwise.


o Guideline on requalification of prequalified dossiers

o Hand book of GLP

o Prequalification Programme
Information for Applicants: Guidelines: Generics

  • Selected annex and supplement below.

o WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations, Thirty-ninth Report (WHO TRS No. 929, Annex 5); Fixed dose combinations: June 2005

o WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations, Fortieth Report (WHO TRS No. 937): May 2006

o Annexes 7–9 are available in separate documents:

o Handbook Good Laboratory Practice (GLP): 2001

o Training manual for Trainer

o Training manual for trainee

OECD-GLP Guidelines

Environment Directorate: OECD Environmental Health and Safety Publications, Series on Principles of Good Laboratory Practice and Compliance Monitoring

1. OECD principles of GLP

2. Revised guides for compliance monitoring procedures for GLP

3. Revised guidance for the conduct of laboratory inspections and study audits

4. Quality Assurance and GLP

5. Compliance of laboratory suppliers with GLP principles

6. The application of GLP principles to the field studies

7. The application of the glp principles to short-term studies

8. The roles and responsibilities of the study director in GLP studies

9. Guidance for the preparation of GLP inspection reports

10. The Application of the Principles of GLP to Computerised Systems: Oct 1995 (en, fr, de, es: 4th link, also denoted as German)

11. The Role and Responsibilities of the Sponsor in the Application of the Principles of GLP: Mar 1998 (en, fr)

12. Requesting and Carrying Out Inspections and Study Audits in Another Country: Sep 2000 (en, fr)

13. The Application of the OECD Principles of GLP to the Organisation and Management of Multi-Site Studies: Jun 2002 (en, fr, de)

14. The Application of the Principles of GLP to in vitro Studies: Nov 2004 (en, fr)

15. Establishment and Control of Archives that Operate in Compliance with the Principles of GLP: Jun 2007 (en, fr)

PIC/S: Guides and Recommendations

Good Practices for Computerized Systems in Regulated “GXP” Environments: Version 3, Sep 2007

PAHO: Working Group on Bioequivalence

o Good Clinical Practices - Document of the Americas: 2005

o Science Based Criteria for BE in vivo and in vitro, Bio-Waivers and Strategic Framework for Implementation: Draft 2001

o BA / BE / Biowaivers: Final Draft Aug 2004



South Africa (MCC): MCC Guidelines

o Generic Substitution

o Pharmaceutical and Analytical Guideline

o MCC Biostudies

o MCC Dissolution



ASEAN States (ACCSQ): Pharmaceutical Product Working Group

o BA / BE guidelines /span>

Australia Guidelines


o Summary of a BA or BE Study: Dec 2002

o Australian Regulatory Guidelines for Prescription Medicines

: China SFDA

o Drug Administration Law of the People's Republic of China

o Regulations for implementation of the drug administartion law

o Good Clinical Practice: Aug 2003 zh

o Statistical Guidelines for Clinical Trials of Drugs and Biologics: Mar 2005 zh

o Hong Kong; GCP for Proprietary Chinese Medicines: Feb 2004

India (CDSCO): Central Drugs Standard Control Organization

o Bioavailability / Bioequivalence: Current Draft Mar 2005

o Requirements and Guidelines for Permission to Import and / or Manufacture of New Drugs for Sale or to Undertake Clinical Trials: Schedule Y – Amended Version, Jun 2005

o GCP: 2005

o Submission of Clinical Trial Application for Evaluating Safety and Efficacy: v1.1 Dec 2008

o Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants (published by the Indian Council of Medical Research): Oct 2006

Israel: MOH: Drug Registration Section

Israel: Israel -Guidelines for Clinical Trials in Human Subjects

Israel: Drug Submission Requirements for Generic Drug Products

o SOP for Performing BE in Human Subjects

o Requirments for Registration of a Generic Product

Japan (NIHS): Division of Drugs Guidances

o Clinical Pharmacokinetic Studies of Pharmaceuticals

o Oral Prolonged Release Dosage Forms: Mar 1988

o Following guidelines were revised with 24 Nov 2006:

  • Guideline for BE Test on Oral Solid Preparation with Different Drug Strengths:Guideline ja Q&A ja
  • Guideline for BE Test on Oral Solid Preparation for which the Formulation has been changed:Guideline ja Q&A ja
  • Guideline for BE Studies of Generic Products for Topical Use:Guideline ja Q&A ja
  • Guideline for BE Studies of Adding Dosage Form for Topical Use: new 24 Nov 2006: Guideline ja Q&A ja

Jordan: Ministry of Health Rules & Regulations

o Laws and Regulations Applicable to the Conducting of Pharmaceutical Research: 2001 (Arabic)

o Jordan pharmaceutical country profile

o Guidance for conducting Clinical Trials Based on Drugs/ Medical Products & Good Clinical Practice


Malaysia (BPFK): Guidelines

o Conduct of BA and BE Studies: Final, Sep 2000

o GCP: Second Edition, Jan 2004

o GLP: Draft Jul 2006

o Guidance Document and Guidelines for Registration of Biosimilars IN MALAYSIA

New Zealand (Medsafe): Guidelines

o Guidance notes for applicants for consent to distribute new and changed medicines and related products (including BA/BE): Final, Oct 2001

o Biostudy Reference Products: Jul 2006

Saudia Arabia: Saudi Food & Drug Authority

Singapore: HSA

o Drug Registration Information and Guidelines

  • ASEAN Common Technical Requirements (ACTR)

BA / BE: Final Draft Jul 2004

Validation of Analytical Procedures: Final, Jan 2005

South Korea: KFDA

o Minimum Requirements for BE Test: Dec 2005

Taiwan: CDE Regulations in zh

Thailand (FDA): DCD

o BE Study Protocol / Report: 2003 th

o BA / BE: Aug 2004, adopted 2005

o BA / BE: Current th

o Instruction for the In Vivo BE Study Protocol Development: Oct 2006 th



European Union (EMEA)

EudraLex – The Rules Governing Medicinal Products in the European Union

o Procedure for European Union Guidelines and Related Documents within the Pharmaceutical Legislative Framework: Jan 2009

o Guidelines: Clinical Efficacy and Safety

o Guidelines: Multidisciplinary

o Legislation

o Bioavailability / Bioequivalence

  • Note for Guidance and associated documents

Bioavailability / Bioequivalence: Jul 2001

Bioequivalence: Draft Jul 2008

Questions & Answers on the BA and BE Guideline

Recommendation on the Need for Revision of NfG on BA/BE: May 2007

Concept Paper on BCS-based Biowaiver: May 2007

Advice to Applicants/Sponsors/CROs of BE Studies: Sep 2008

o Pharmacokinetics

o Statistical Issues

o Miscellaneous

Definition and Terminology


All pages refer to current documents (PDF).

General Information

Application for Marketing Authorisation (MA)

Generics in MRP and DCP

Applicants response

Renewal Procedure

Variation Procedure

Urgent Safety Restriction

Art. 61.3 Procedure

Post Referral Phase

EDQM: Quality Assurance Activities Guidelines

o Validation of Analytical Procedures: Jun 2005

o Uncertainty of Measurements

o Qualification of Equipment (core document)

Denmark DKMA: Guidelines and Forms

o Bioequivalence and labelling of medicinal products with regard to generic substitution: Jan 2006

Netherlands (GBG-MEB): Legislation & Guidelines

o Exemptions from BE-testing (positive list): for strict national registration only

Switzerland: Swissmedic

o Instructions for Generics: Dec 2002

o Reference Formulations for BE / CTDs for Generics: Apr 2004

o Biosimilars: Feb 2008 de

Federal Office of Public Health, AGIT

o Guidelines for the archiving of Electronic Raw Data in a GLP Environment: May 2003

o Guidelines for the management of electronic SOPs in GLP: Sep 2006

o Guidelines for the acquisition and processing of electronic raw data in a GLP environment: Sep 2006

o Guidelines for the validation of computerised Systems in GLP Environment

Turkey: Ministry of Health

o Good Laboratory Practice Principles: Jun 2002 tr

o Licensing Regulation for Pharmaceutical Products: 2003

o Submission of BA/BE Dossiers: Jan 2006



Argentina: Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica

o GCP Guideline for studies in human subjects

o Good Practices in Clinical Pharmacology Research

o BA / BE: Final

o Bioanalytical Method Validation: Final, Sep 2005 es

Brazil (ANVISA): Legislation




o Implementation of Relative BA and BE Studies: Apr 2006

o Pharmaceutical Equivalence/Dissolution

o BA / BE: May 2003

o Exemption and Substitution of BE Studies

o Bioanalytical Method Validation

o Explanation of the Implementation of Re No. 899/2003 – Validation of Bioanalytical Methods: Jun 2008

o Statistics for BA/BE Studies: May 2003

o Protocol of BE Studies: May 2003

o Report of BE Studies: May 2003

o List of Reference Products: Current

o Rules / Technical Regulations for CROs: May 2003

Annex I: Certification for BA/BE Centers:

Application Form

Renewal Form

Annex II: Guidelines for Inspection at Centers of BA/BE of Medicines

Annex III: Certificate of Good Practices of BA/BE of Medicines

Annex IV: Form for Outsourcing of Phase for Assays of BA/BE of Medicines

Annex V: Form for Monthly Report of Assays of BA/BE of Medicines

o Guidance for Pharmaceutical Equivalence and Bioequivalence of Nasal Sprays and Aerosols: Jun 2008

o BA BE Good Practices Manual

Mexico: Secretaría de Salud

o BA / BE: Final, May 1999

o BA / BE Update, Biowaivers: Mar 2000 es

o Comisión Permanente de la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos: Legislación santitaria relacionada con la industria farmacéutica es



USA (FDA): CDER Guidances

OGD Homepage

o Legislation (excerpts from Code of Federal Regulations, CFR)

o CDER’s Manual of Policies and Procedures

o Bioavailability / Bioequivalence

Cumulative supplement [published monthly]

Electronic ‘Orange Book’: Current version [including online search]

Statistical Information

1997 Questions and Answers

Individual Product BE Recommendations by API

o Miscellaneous

ORA Bioresearch Monitoring Information Page

o GLP (Non-Clinical Laboratories)

Compliance Program Guidance Manual: Feb 2001

Final Rule: Sep 1987

Questions and Answers: Jun 1981, Dec 1999, Jul 2007

Remark: In the USA two sets of GLP regulations are in force; the other one is issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
For a comparison between FDA’s, EPA’s, and OECD’s GLPs see the comparison charts

o Sponsors, Contract Research Organizations and Monitors: Feb 2001

o Clinical Investigators: Dec 2008

o Guideline for the Monitoring of Clinical Investigations: Jan 1988

o Institutional Review Boards: Oct 1994

o Oversight of Clinical Investigations —A Risk-Based Approach to Monitoring

Canada: HPFB Guidances

o BA / BE - Part A [IR]: 1992

o BA / BE - Part B [MR]: Nov 1996

o BA / BE - Part C [IR, complicated or highly variable PK]: Dec 1992

o Inclusion of Women in Clinical Trials: Apr 1997

o Drug Interactions: Sep 2000

o CTAs for Comparative BA Studies: Draft Oct 2001; updated Feb 2008

o Records Related to Clinical Trials: May 2006

o Draft Policy: BE Requirements: Drugs Exhibiting Non-linear Pharmacokinetics, Jun 2003

o BE of HVDs/HVDPs: Discussion Paper, Jun 2003

o Removal of Requirement for 15% Random Replicate Samples: Notice, Sep 2003

o BE of Combination Drug Products: Notice, Jun 2004

o Metabolites in Comparative BA Studies: Draft May 2004

o Preparation of Comparative BA Information for Drug Submissions in the CTD Format: Draft May 2004

o BE in Fed State: Jun 2005

o BE for Long Half-life Drugs: Notice, Jun 2005

o BE for Rapid Onset Drugs: Notice, Jun 2005

o BE for Critical Dose Drugs: May 2006

o Comparative Bioavailability Standards: Formulations Used for Systemic Effects

o Conduct and Analysis of Comparative Bioavailability Studies


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